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Variables can be used to store partial results and do complex calculations with the data extracted from data source. These values can then be used in other parts of the report, including other variables. This tutorial shows how to create and configure a variable, and explains the fields that define it.
Defining a New Variable or Editing an Existing One
Base Properties of a Variable
At a minimum, all variables must have the following defined:
- Name: a string used to refer to the variable, it is necessary to use this variable inside other expressions (such the valorization of a Text Field or the computation of another variable). To refer to a variable the following syntax is used: $V{variable_name}.
- Type: necessary because a variable is an object that probably will be used in other expressions, so it's type must be known to be manipulated correctly.
- Expression: the function used to define the variable value, it can be composed of more fields and variables, and could be used logic operators, math operators and so on. To easly define the expression an expression editor is provided in Jaspersoft Studio, this can be opened using the button at the right of the text Field used to write the expression. The expression is evaluated on each iteration, every time a record is readed from the datasource. If there isn't a calculation function defined (this will be explained below) the result of the expression will be assigned to the variable, so it's important that the result has a type compatible with the one in the variable.
- Initial Value: the value assiumed from the variable at the beginning, before the first computation of its expression. The initial value it's an expression itself, so it can be defined through the expression editor. It's not mandatory, but this depends on the expression itself and should be a good practice define an initial value. Suppose to have a variable called variable1 with the expression "new Integer(5)". At every record read will be assign to the variable the integer value 5, so the initial value it isn't important in this context. But suppose to change the expression to "$V{variable1}+5", this means that at every iteration the variable is incremented by 5. In this case an initial value it's necessary otherwise at the first iteration the variable1 is undefined and this breaks all future evaluations. So an initial value it's not mandatory, but the not initialized variables can be dangerous, so it's a good practice define it.
Other Properties of a Variable
Evaluation Time
The evaluation time is not an attribute of the variable but of the elements that can use variables in their expressions (like a Text Field) and define the "time" when the value of the variable should be read. A variable can potentially change value at every iteration, so a value readat one time may be different from the one obtained during another time. So for every element that can define an expression is possible to say when evaluate it. And since in the expression could be defined one or more variables this parameter also influences also when these variables are read. The possible values are:
- Report: the value of the expression is evaluated at the end of the report.
- Page: the value of the expression is evaluated at the end of every page of the report.
- Column: the value of the expression is evaluated at the end of each column (if the report is composed only of a column this is equivalent to Page).
- Group
: the value of the expression is evaluated after the break of the specified group. This option is visible only if at least one group is defined. - Band: the value of the expression is evaluated after the end of the band where the element with this evaluation time is placed. This is a very particular case, introduced to wait that the other elements in the band are completely created. Typically the value of the variables are read at the start of the band, but for example suppose to have a subreport with an output parameter to print in the main report. To print this parameter it must be read when the subreport was already computed, so the value could be printed when the band is completely created, in this cases the Band evaluation time is necessary.
- Auto: this is used when in the expression of the element there are more variables and fields, that need to be evaluated at different times. The variables are evaluated at a time corresponding to their Reset Type (see below for more information), insted the fields are always evaluated at time -now. This type is useful when report elements have expressions that combine values evaluated at different times (e.g. percentage out of a total).
- Now: the value of the expression is evaluated after the read of every record, so at every iteration, this is the default behavior.
Calculation Function
A calculation function is an attribute of a variable that defines when the variable can be used in association with the expression to determinate the value of the variable. When using a calculation function, the value of the variable is not determinated directly by its expression. Instead, it is passed to the calculation function that will use it (depending on the function) to calculate the variable value. There are many function built-in in Jaspersoft Studio:
- Sum: at every iteration the the value of the expression is taken it will be summed at the value of the variable. This is one of the cases where the initial value is really important.
- Count: at every iteration the variable value is incremented by one unit. This only if the expression is different from null, in that case the value of the variable will be left unchanged.
- Distinct Count: at every iteration the variable value is incremented by one unit, but only if the value of the expression was never returned before.
- Average: the value of the variable is the arithmetic average of all values received in input from the expression.
- Lowest: the variable take the value of the lowest element received from the expression.
- Highest: the variable take the value of the highest element received from the expression.
- Standard Deviation: the standard deviation of all the value received from the expression.
- First: the variable take the value from the first value returned by the expression.
- System: no calculation is done and the expression is not evaluated, the value of this variable will be the last value set on it. Usefull to store partial results or the final result of a computation.
Increment Type
As stated above, when a calculation function is defined, the the value of the expression is passed to the function that will do the calculation for the variable. The default behavior is to do this for every record read, but sometimes a different behavior is desired. Using the increment type parameter is possible to change the "time" on which the calculation function is used. The possible values for this attribute are:
- Report: the Calculation Function is called only at the end of the report, passing to it the value of the expression at that moment.
- Page: the Calculation Function is called at the end of each page, passing to it the value of the expression at that moments.
- Column: the Calculation Function is called at the end of each column (if the report is composed only of a column this is equivalent to Page).
- Group
: the Calculation Function is called at the start of every occurence of the specified group. This option is visible only if at least one group is defined. - None: the Calculation Function is called after the read of every record, this is the default behavior.
Remember that the expression is evaluated at every record read, independently from the increment type selected, but the calculation function will be used only when the times match those defined in the increment type.
Reset Type
The reset type defines when a variable should be reset to the initial value, or to null if an initial value is undefined. This is useful when the variable is used to compute a partial value, such a sum or an average of only some of the records read. The possible values for this attribute are:
- Report: the variable is initialized only one time at the beginning of the report creation.
- Page: the variable is initialized on each page.
- Column: the variable is initialized again in each new column (if the report is composed only of a column this is equivalent to Page).
- Group
: the variable is initialized at the start of every occurence of the specified group. This option is visible only if at least one group is defined. - None: the variable will never be initialized, so the initial value expression is ignored.
Incrementer Factory Class Name
The calculation functions are useful but are also generics and limited to the numeric types. You may have a case where something more specific is needed. Suppose you have a field of type String and you want to concatenate the value read. You can do this by defining a new Incrementer. An incrementer is a piece of java code that extends the interface JRIncrementerFactory, and can build a personalized calculation function to do what you need. Every calculation function receives the expression value and the variable value and returns the result of the increment, so there is everything needed to do the calculation and return the right value.
The Built-In Variables
These are default variables built-in into Jaspersoft Studio and that are present in every report defined. They represent very general information. These variables are:
- PAGE_NUMBER: At every iteration it contains the number of the pages that compose the report. If this variable is read with evalutation time "Report" it will contain the number of all the pages in the report;
- COLUMN_NUMER: Contains the current number of columns;
- REPORT_COUNT: Contains the total number of record processed;
- PAGE_COUNT: Contains the number of record processed in the current page;
- COLUMN_COUNT: contains the number of record processed during the current column creation.
Tips & Tricks
- Pay attention at the type of the variable, many time a bad result is due to this. For example if your expression returns a number but the variable is type string (that it's also the default type) then its value will be always zero.
- The form of the expression is really important for the computation of a value, especially when in the expression is used the variable itself. Consider the following example with
- A field with name "Money_Gained", readed from the datasource, that has an integer value and could be null
- A variable "Total1" with the expression IF(EQUALS($F{Money_Gained}, null), $V{Total1}, $V{Total1}+$F{Money_Gained}), initial value zero, and no calculation function;
- A variable "Total2" with the expression $V{Money_Gained} == null ? $V{Total2} : $V{Total2}+$F{Money_Gained}, initial value zero, and no calculation function;
The two expressions could seem equivalent: them both sum the money gained to the variable when it is not null (remember that if there isn't a calculation function then the value of the expression is assigned to the variable). The check if the Money Gained has value null it's necessary because the sum of a number with the value null is null. So adding null to Total1 or Total2 will change the variable to null. But even with this check when Money_Gained will became null for the first time even Total1 will be null, instead Total2 will have the correct value.
This happens because this two expressions have 2 different interpreters, the first is interpreted by Groovy, the second by Java. The java behavior is to evaluate the condition and then select the correct branch. Instead Groovy compute the two branches, then evaluate the expression and finally it return the correct already evaluated branch. Doing this it will add the null value to Total1 before to do the check, and this will made Total1 to became null.A trick to avoid this is to use the variable only in the main branch, for example Total1 could be rewritten like: $V{Total1} + IF(EQUALS($F{Money_Gained}, null),0,F{Money_Gained}).
The syntax is still interpreted by Groovy, but now the variable is out of the IF branches, so even if they are both evaluated, the variable maintains its value.
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