Planet Jaspersoft

August 7, 2022

 org.openqa.selenium.StaleElementReferenceException

When it occurs ? 

  • When the element has been deleted entirely.
  • When the element is no longer attached to the DOM

Causes: 

  • When the page is refreshed 
  • When the user is navigated to another page
  • When the java script deletes the element and creates the same element with the same id then the driver may not identify the replacement

How to overcome ? 

  • By refreshing the web page | 
driver.navigate().refersh(); 
driver.findElement(By.xpath("xpath")).click();
  • By using Try Catch Block
  • By using ExpectedConditions.refreshed
WebDriver wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, Duration.ofSeconds(30));
wait.until(ExpectedConditions.refreshed(ExpectedConditions.stalenessOf("ThisIsElement");

  • By using POM Lazy Initialization
    •  In POM, we use initElements() method which loads the element but it won’t initialize elements. 
    •  initElements() takes latest address. 
    •  It initializes during run time when we try to perform any action on an element. 
    •  This process is also known as Lazy Initialization.

August 7, 2022

 org.openqa.selenium.NoSuchElementException

  • Thrown by various accessor methods to indicate that the element being requested does not exist.
  • If the element is not present on the DOM, we get NoSuchElementException Exception 
org.openqa.selenium.NoSuchElementException: no such element: Unable to locate element: {"method":"xpath","selector":"//*[@id="TablePartners"]/tbody/tr/td[4]/a[1]"}
(Session info: chrome=103.0.5060.134)
For documentation on this error, please visit: https://selenium.dev/exceptions/#no_such_element
Build info: version: '4.3.0', revision: 'a4995e2c09*'
System info: host: 'SADAKARP', ip: '100.200.1.3', os.name: 'Windows 11', os.arch: 'amd64', os.version: '10.0', java.version: '17.0.3'
Driver info: org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
Command: [108db81f036e7466c1939f054decbfb8, findElement {using=xpath, value=//*[@id="TablePartners"]/tbody/tr/td[4]/a[1]}]
Capabilities {acceptInsecureCerts: true, browserName: chrome, browserVersion: 103.0.5060.134, chrome: {chromedriverVersion: 103.0.5060.53 (a1711811edd7..., userDataDir: C:\Users\sadakarp\AppData\L...}, goog:chromeOptions: {debuggerAddress: localhost:61571}, networkConnectionEnabled: false, pageLoadStrategy: normal, platformName: WINDOWS, proxy: Proxy(), se:cdp: ws://localhost:61571/devtoo..., se:cdpVersion: 103.0.5060.134, setWindowRect: true, strictFileInteractability: false, timeouts: {implicit: 0, pageLoad: 300000, script: 30000}, unhandledPromptBehavior: dismiss and notify, webauthn:extension:credBlob: true, webauthn:extension:largeBlob: true, webauthn:virtualAuthenticators: true}
Session ID: 108db81f036e7466c1939f054decbfb8
at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance0(Native Method)
at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(NativeConstructorAccessorImpl.java:77)
at java.base/jdk.internal.reflect.DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.newInstance(DelegatingConstructorAccessorImpl.java:45)
at java.base/java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstanceWithCaller(Constructor.java:499)
at java.base/java.lang.reflect.Constructor.newInstance(Constructor.java:480)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.codec.w3c.W3CHttpResponseCodec.createException(W3CHttpResponseCodec.java:200)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.codec.w3c.W3CHttpResponseCodec.decode(W3CHttpResponseCodec.java:133)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.codec.w3c.W3CHttpResponseCodec.decode(W3CHttpResponseCodec.java:53)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.HttpCommandExecutor.execute(HttpCommandExecutor.java:184)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.service.DriverCommandExecutor.invokeExecute(DriverCommandExecutor.java:167)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.service.DriverCommandExecutor.execute(DriverCommandExecutor.java:142)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.RemoteWebDriver.execute(RemoteWebDriver.java:569)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.ElementLocation$ElementFinder$2.findElement(ElementLocation.java:162)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.ElementLocation.findElement(ElementLocation.java:60)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.RemoteWebDriver.findElement(RemoteWebDriver.java:387)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.RemoteWebDriver.findElement(RemoteWebDriver.java:379)
at com.inovalon.cucumber.stepdef.tradingpartners.AddTradingPartner.search_for_the_Trading_Partner_created_and_verify_for_its_existance(AddTradingPartner.java:107)
at .Search for the Trading Partner created and verify for its existance(classpath:features/AddTradingPartner.feature:19)

August 7, 2022

August 5, 2022

org.openqa.selenium.TimeoutException

  • Thrown when a command does not complete in enough time.
  • For instance, in the below example, we get TimeOutException after having waited for 30 seconds 
  • This is an explicit wait technique in selenium and the element is identified using method visibilityOfElementLocated in the DOM(Document Object Model)

WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, Duration.ofSeconds(30));
wait.until(ExpectedConditions.visibilityOfElementLocated(By.xpath("//a[contains(text(),'Add New Partner')]")));

Log
org.openqa.selenium.TimeoutException: Expected condition failed: waiting for visibility of element located by By.xpath: //a[contains(text(),'Add New  Partner')] (tried for 30 second(s) with 500 milliseconds interval)
Build info: version: '4.3.0', revision: 'a4995e2c09*'
System info: host: 'SADAKARP', ip: '392.100.7.2', os.name: 'Windows 11', os.arch: 'amd64', os.version: '10.0', java.version: '17.0.3'
Driver info: org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
Capabilities {acceptInsecureCerts: true, browserName: chrome, browserVersion: 103.0.5060.134, chrome: {chromedriverVersion: 103.0.5060.53 (a1711811edd7..., userDataDir: C:\Users\sadakarp\AppData\L...}, goog:chromeOptions: {debuggerAddress: localhost:60618}, networkConnectionEnabled: false, pageLoadStrategy: none, platformName: WINDOWS, proxy: Proxy(), se:cdp: ws://localhost:60618/devtoo..., se:cdpVersion: 103.0.5060.134, setWindowRect: true, strictFileInteractability: false, timeouts: {implicit: 0, pageLoad: 300000, script: 30000}, unhandledPromptBehavior: dismiss and notify, webauthn:extension:credBlob: true, webauthn:extension:largeBlob: true, webauthn:virtualAuthenticators: true}
Session ID: c13c1f6304ded0dc6587693ac3eae3b6
at org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.WebDriverWait.timeoutException(WebDriverWait.java:87)
at org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.FluentWait.until(FluentWait.java:231)

August 5, 2022

August 2, 2022

https://community.jaspersoft.com/questions/513786/blank-page-end

August 2, 2022

 Screenshots in Selenium with Cucumber, TestNG

  • Purpose: To analyze or de-bug or trace the test execution (or to analyze a bug)
  • Generally, used with failed scenarios/tests
  • Very handy when executing tests in Non GUI environments such as Jenkins, AzureDevOps and etc. 
  • In cucumber, write the screenshots code in After hook
  • Ensure to quit the driver immediately after taking the screenshot
  • If screenshot and quit has to go in two different methods use order for the After hook. 
  • For instance, give order=0 for quit the driver and give order=1 to take the screenshot. 

Example

Screenshot is implemented based on my previous example on page factory codebase. 

Refer this post on page factory
and in the Hooks.java class update the code of After hooks namely 
@After(order=0) and @After(order=1)


Download Screenshots source code from GitHub  OR
 click this to download as a Zip

  • In the order=0 After hook section, quit the driver and in the order=1 hook section take the screenshot. 

  • Use the attach method of scenario object
    (NOTE: This example is based on io.cucumber 7.1.0 and it doesn't support embed method)

  • isFailed() identifies the failed scenario , for instance in the DirectoryPageFactory.java file (refer the code from previous example above) xpath for the searchButtonLocator is deliberately updated to a bad entry so this produces an error in validation. 
// Search button locator
@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id=\"searchBtnBAD\"]")
public WebElement searchButtonLocator;


Hooks.java
package com.sadakar.common;
import org.openqa.selenium.OutputType;
import org.openqa.selenium.TakesScreenshot;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import io.cucumber.java.After;
import io.cucumber.java.Before;
import io.cucumber.java.Scenario;

public class Hooks extends BasePage {

@Before //Cucumber Before Hook
public void setupDriver() throws InterruptedException {

System
.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "D:\\chromedriver.exe");
driver
= new ChromeDriver();
driver
.manage().window().maximize();
driver
.get("https://opensource-demo.orangehrmlive.com/index.php/auth/login");
}

@After(order=0) // Cucumber After hook with order 0
public void quitDriver() throws Exception {
driver
.quit();
}
@After(order = 1) // Cucumber After Hook with order 1
public void takeScreenShotOnFailedScenario(Scenario scenario) {

System
.out.println("This is from After hook, order=1");
if ((scenario.isFailed())) {
final byte[] screenshot = ((TakesScreenshot) driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.BYTES);
scenario.attach(screenshot, "image/png", scenario.getName());
}

}

}

Where does screenshots get stored ? 

The code above is a cucumber based screenshot in the Hooks so eventually the screenshots get stored in the cucumber related reports. 
For instance, below is the cucumber report folder in the target

As the cucumberreport.html is opened, we can see the screenshot appended at the end of the scenario. 



What if the order of After hooks for quit is 1 and
for screenshot is 0 

We end up with the following error message:
org.openqa.selenium.NoSuchSessionException: Session ID is null. Using WebDriver after calling quit()?

      org.openqa.selenium.NoSuchSessionException: Session ID is null. Using WebDriver after calling quit()?
Build info: version: '4.3.0', revision: 'a4995e2c09*'
System info: host: 'SADAKARP', ip: '136.144.2.8', os.name: 'Windows 10', os.arch: 'amd64', os.version: '10.0', java.version: '16.0.2'
Driver info: org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver
Command: [null, screenshot {}]
Capabilities {acceptInsecureCerts: false, browserName: chrome, browserVersion: 103.0.5060.134, chrome: {chromedriverVersion: 103.0.5060.53 (a1711811edd7..., userDataDir: C:\Users\sadakarp\AppData\L...}, goog:chromeOptions: {debuggerAddress: localhost:64648}, networkConnectionEnabled: false, pageLoadStrategy: normal, platformName: WINDOWS, proxy: Proxy(), se:cdp: ws://localhost:64648/devtoo..., se:cdpVersion: 103.0.5060.134, setWindowRect: true, strictFileInteractability: false, timeouts: {implicit: 0, pageLoad: 300000, script: 30000}, unhandledPromptBehavior: dismiss and notify, webauthn:extension:credBlob: true, webauthn:extension:largeBlob: true, webauthn:virtualAuthenticators: true}
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.HttpCommandExecutor.execute(HttpCommandExecutor.java:145)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.service.DriverCommandExecutor.invokeExecute(DriverCommandExecutor.java:167)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.service.DriverCommandExecutor.execute(DriverCommandExecutor.java:142)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.RemoteWebDriver.execute(RemoteWebDriver.java:569)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.RemoteWebDriver.execute(RemoteWebDriver.java:624)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.RemoteWebDriver.execute(RemoteWebDriver.java:628)
at org.openqa.selenium.remote.RemoteWebDriver.getScreenshotAs(RemoteWebDriver.java:353)
at com.sadakar.common.Hooks.takeScreenShotOnFailedScenario(Hooks.java:29)
I hope this helped you a bit. Keep an eye this space for future posts.

August 2, 2022

August 1, 2022

In this post, we will see, how to create a database connection only once and how to close the connection once using TestNG BeforeSuite and AfterSuite annotations. 

@BeforeSuite

  • The method that is annotated with BeforeSuite will run after all scenarios or tests. 
  • That is BeforeSuite will be executed only once before executing all scenarios or tests.

@AfterSuite

  • The method that is annotated with AfterSuite will run after all scenarios or tests. 
  • That is AfterSuite will be executed only once after executing all scenarios or tests. 

Example: 

Connect to MS-SQL server in Selenium with Cucumber and TestNG project only once to perform database operations. 

DatabaseHooks.java

@BeforeHook
  • Create the connection before executing all the cucumber scenarios.
  • In the code below, ff the connection is null then establish the connection and if
    the connection is not null then print a message saying that the connection is already created.
@AfterHook
  • Close the connection after executing all the cucumber scenarios.
package com.sadakar.cucumber.common;

import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.DriverManager;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.sql.Statement;

import org.testng.annotations.AfterSuite;
import org.testng.annotations.BeforeSuite;

public class DatabaseHooks {

// Connection object
private static Connection dbConn = null;
// Statement object
@SuppressWarnings("unused")
private static Statement stmt;
// Constant for Database URL
public static String DB_URL = "jdbc:sqlserver://14.456.9.20:1433;user=TestUser;password=TestPassWord;database=TestDB";

@BeforeSuite //TestNG annotation
public static Connection getDBConnection() {

try {

if (dbConn == null) {
Class.forName("com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SQLServerDriver");
dbConn = DriverManager.getConnection(DB_URL);

System.out.println("Connected to Database - BeforeSuite TestNG");
}
else {
System.out.println("Already Connected to Database - BeforeSuite TestNG");
}
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
return dbConn;
}


@AfterSuite //TestNG
public static void closeConnection() {
if (dbConn != null)
try {
dbConn.close();
System.out.println("Database connection closed - AfterSuite TestNG");
} catch (SQLException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
}

CreateUser.java
  • Create a Connection Object in the CreateUser class.
  • Create Statement(s) and execute and store the result in res1 variable of ResultSet
  • Connection for the database is created once in the above Hook and we are using it in
    CreateUser class and similarly, we can make use of the same connection in other classes.
package com.sadakar.cucumber.stepdefinitions;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.sql.SQLException;
import java.sql.Statement;
import java.time.Duration;
import java.util.List;
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.testng.Assert;
import com.sadakar.cucumber.common.DatabaseHooks;
import com.sadakar.resource.utilities.Log;
import com.sadakar.webui.common.BasePage;
import io.cucumber.java.en.Then;

public class CreateUser extends BasePage {

Connection con = DatabaseHooks.getDBConnection();

@Then("Fills the user on the User form")
public void fillTheUserFrom(io.cucumber.datatable.DataTable dataTableAddUser)
throws InterruptedException, SQLException {

if (dataTableAddUser == null)
throw new NullPointerException("cells can not be null");
List
<List<String>> cells = dataTableAddUser.cells();

Statement sta
= con.createStatement();

String AutomationUser1
= "select * from Users where username='AutomationUser1'";

ResultSet res1
= sta.executeQuery(AutomationUser1);

if (res1.next()) {

System
.out.println("ResultSet is not empty, 1 row returned");
System
.out.println("AutomationUser1 test user already exists so deleting the existing and creating it again");

String deleteUser
= "delete from Users where UserName='AutomationUser1'";
String deleteUserEmail
= "delete from UserAdditionalInfo where Email='AutomationUser1@email.com'";

sta
.executeUpdate(deleteUser);
sta
.executeUpdate(deleteUserEmail);

driver
.findElement(By.xpath("//input[@id='UserName']")).clear();
driver
.findElement(By.xpath("//input[@id='UserName']")).sendKeys(cells.get(1).get(1));
driver
.findElement(By.xpath("//input[@id='UserEmail']")).sendKeys(cells.get(2).get(1));

} else if (!res1.next()) {
System
.out.println("ResultSet is empty, no rows returned");
System
.out.println("Test user does not exist so creating test user : AutomationUser1");

driver
.findElement(By.xpath("//input[@id='User']")).clear();
driver
.findElement(By.xpath("//input[@id='User']")).sendKeys(cells.get(1).get(1));
driver
.findElement(By.xpath("//input[@id='UserEmail']")).sendKeys(cells.get(2).get(1));
} else {
Assert
.assertTrue(false);
}

}
}

August 1, 2022

July 29, 2022

Hi, In this tutorial, we look at the differences between POM and PageFactory in selenium and 
an end to end example implementation of PageFactory design pattern of POM.

What is the usage of Page Object Model (POM) and PageFactory class? 

  • We can separate the test objects(web elements are the test objects) from the test scripts. 
  • Advantages: 
    • Code reusability, maintainability, repositoy of objects, better redability. 

Page Object Model (POM)

  • An OOPs test design pattern using page class. 
  • We organize each web page objects/elements in a class.
  • Test scripts are maintained in separate class. 
  • Locators are defined using "By" (By is a selenium class)
  •  Example: 
public By userNameLocator = By.xpath("//*[@id=\"txtUsername\"]");

PageFactory: 

  • PageFactory is a selenium class; It is an optimized approach to implement the Page Object Model using PageFactory class.  
  • Locators are defined using "@FindBy"  annotation of PageFactory class. 
  • Example: 
@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id=\"txtUsername\"]")
public WebElement userNameLocator;
@FindBys({
@FindBy(id="xyz"),
@FindBy(id="pqr")
})
  • We use initElements method to initialize the elements of the web page. 
    • Example: Using class
  HRMLoginPageFactory hrmLoginPF = 
          PageFactory.initElements(driver, HRMLoginPageFactory.class);
  
  • Example: Using a Constructor 
        public HRMLoginPageFactory(WebDriver driver) {           
      this.driver = driver; 
      PageFactory.initElements(driver, this);
}

Now, let's begin with an example: 
Scenarios: 
Login to the HRM Application 
Navigate to Directory page and check for the Search button presence. 

Project structure: 


Download this example from GitHub or Download this Zip and import in Eclipse 

NOTE : 
In the downloaded code update this : 
return searchButtonLocator.isDisplayed(); in DirectoryPageFactory.java file

Steps: 

  • Download and install cucumber plug-in in Eclipse from Market Place
  • Download and install TestNG plug-in in Eclipse from Market Place
  • Create a new Maven project (say : CucumberTestNGSeleniumMavenPageFactoryPattern)
  • Add the following dependencies in  pom.xml
    • cucumber-java 7.1.0
    • cucumber-testng 7.1.0
    • selenium-java 4.3.0
    • testng 7.1.0
  • Add the following plug-ins in pom.xml 
    •  maven-surefire-plugin 3.0.0-M7
    •  maven-compiler-plugin 3.10.1
  • Create feature files in 
    • folder: src/test/resources
    • HRMLogin.feature
    • Directory.feature
  • Write code for cucumber runner
    • folder : src/test/java
    • package : com.sadakar.testng.runner
    • class : RunCucumberTest.java

  • Write code for driver, hooks 
    • folder : src/test/java
    • package: com.sadakar.common
    • BasePage.java for driver 
    • Hooks.java for Before and After cucumber hooks

  • Write code for page objects in Page Factory classes
In this phase, implement page objects in page factory classes for each of the UI page and refer them wherever required in step definitions. In a long term, if there are any changes in locators, we can just refer to the particular page factory class and update at once. 
Using this approach we can reduce a lot of code redundancy.  
    • folder : src/test/java
    • package: com.sadakar.pageobjects
    • HRMLoginPageFactory.java for HRMLogin page web elements, 
      • for instance locating username, password and login button 
    • DirectoryPageFactory.java for Directory page web element, 
      • for instance view directory tab link, search button 
  • Write code for step definitions or say glue code 
    • HRMLogin.java 
    • Directory.java

  • Run the scenarios from mvn command line 
    • Navigate to the project folder 
    • Run the below command for two scenarios. 

      mvn test -Dcucumber.filter.tags="@LoginValidCredentials or @DirectoryTabIsSearchButtonDisplayed"

      Tap on the image for best view: 

  • Run the scenarios from TestNG in eclipse and report analysis
    • Right click on the project and then Run as TestNG
    • Report will be generated at 
      • test-output> emailable-report.html
    • Tap on the image for best view: 

  • Run the project using testng.xml 
    • Right click on the project > Run as testng.xml
    • Report is same as above
    • Make sure testng.xml is added in pom.xml file as configuration

  • Analysis of cucumber report
    • Cucumber report is available at
      • target > cucumber-reports > cucumberreport.html
    • Tap on the image for better view. 
Now, based on above steps, find the code below for features, Page Factory classes, step definition classes, runner classes, Driver and Hooks classes.

pom.xml
Install all the required jars in the project by defining the dependencies and or plug-ins. 
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 https://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
<groupId>CucumberTestNGSeleniumMavenPageFactoryPattern</groupId>
<artifactId>CucumberTestNGSeleniumMavenPageFactoryPattern</artifactId>
<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
<properties>
<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
</properties>
<dependencies>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/io.cucumber/cucumber-java -->
<dependency>
<groupId>io.cucumber</groupId>
<artifactId>cucumber-java</artifactId>
<version>7.1.0</version>

</dependency>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/io.cucumber/cucumber-java -->
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/io.cucumber/cucumber-testng -->
<dependency>
<groupId>io.cucumber</groupId>
<artifactId>cucumber-testng</artifactId>
<version>7.1.0</version>
</dependency>

<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.seleniumhq.selenium/selenium-java -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.seleniumhq.selenium</groupId>
<artifactId>selenium-java</artifactId>
<version>4.3.0</version>
</dependency>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.testng/testng -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.testng</groupId>
<artifactId>testng</artifactId>
<version>7.1.0</version>
</dependency>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.apache.maven.plugins/maven-compiler-plugin -->

<dependency>
<groupId>tech.grasshopper</groupId>
<artifactId>extentreports-cucumber7-adapter</artifactId>
<version>1.7.0</version>
</dependency>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/com.aventstack/extentreports -->
<dependency>
<groupId>com.aventstack</groupId>
<artifactId>extentreports</artifactId>
<version>5.0.8</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
<build>
<pluginManagement>
<plugins>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
<artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
<version>3.0.0-M7</version>
<configuration>
<suiteXmlFiles>
<suiteXmlFile>testng.xml</suiteXmlFile>
</suiteXmlFiles>
<systemPropertyVariables>
<extent.reporter.spark.start>true</extent.reporter.spark.start>
<extent.reporter.spark.out>test-output/SparkReport/Spark.html</extent.reporter.spark.out>
</systemPropertyVariables>
</configuration>
</plugin>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
<artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
<version>3.10.1</version>
<configuration>
<source>1.8</source>
<target>1.8</target>
<encoding>UTF-8</encoding>
</configuration>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</pluginManagement>
</build>
</project>

HRMLogin.feature
Login feature file, in use DataTable approach for username and password. 
@HRMLogin
Feature: Login to HRM Application
I want to use this template for HRM Login page

@LoginValidCredentials
Scenario: LoginValidCredentials
Given User login to HRM application with UserName and Password
| Admin | admin123 |

Directory.feature
Take the Login feature scenario as Background so repeated code can be avoided for login. 
It's a good practice to implement tests independent so login is taken separately and the directory is taken separately including login. 
@Directory
Feature: Dashboard page
I want to use this template for my Directory Page

Background:
Given User login to HRM application with UserName and Password
| Admin | admin123 |

@DirectoryTabIsSearchButtonDisplayed
Scenario: DirectoryTabIsSearchButtonDisplayed
Then User is on Directory page
Then Is Search button displayed

RunCucumberTest.java
> tags syntax has beeen changed over time, with 7.1, cucumber accepts or , and , not
> classpath.features finds the features in the project. 
> glue identifies the code the project
> plugin is used to create cucumber report or extent-report (The adapter used is to support 4.3 selenium)
> RunCucumberTest -- always append Test at the end of cucumber runner class so the testng identifies the root for the scripts. 

package com.sadakar.testng.runner;

import io.cucumber.testng.AbstractTestNGCucumberTests;
import io.cucumber.testng.CucumberOptions;

@CucumberOptions(

tags = "@LoginValidCredentials or @DirectoryTabIsSearchButtonDisplayed",

features = "classpath:features", glue = { "com.sadakar.common", "com.sadakar.stepdefinitions",
"com.sadakar.testng.runner" },

plugin = { "pretty", "json:target/cucumber-reports/cucumber.json",
"html:target/cucumber-reports/cucumberreport.html",
"com.aventstack.extentreports.cucumber.adapter.ExtentCucumberAdapter:"},

monochrome = true)
public class RunCucumberTest extends AbstractTestNGCucumberTests {

}

BasePage.java
> I would prefer to keep the initialization of driver in a BasePage class since at a later time, if the execution has to be done through a jar, I can keep the CLI(Command Line Interface)
package com.sadakar.common;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
public class BasePage {

public static WebDriver driver;

}

Hooks.java
> Here Before is a cucumber hook, using it set the driver for chrome, access the app url and etc. 
> After is also a cucumber hook and after each scenario the driver quits. 
package com.sadakar.common;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import io.cucumber.java.After;
import io.cucumber.java.Before;

public class Hooks extends BasePage {

@Before //Cucumber Before Hook
public void setupDriver() throws InterruptedException {

System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "D:\\chromedriver.exe");
driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver.manage().window().maximize();
driver.get("https://opensource-demo.orangehrmlive.com/index.php/auth/login");
}

@After // Cucumber After hook
public void quitDriver() throws Exception {
driver.quit();
}

}

HRMLoginPageFactory.java
> In this class,  we store the web elements as objects and perform actions so that we can hide the implementation of actual test scripts. 
> Every page factory class require a driver to find the elements and we activate the driver in the class constructor 
> Using @FindBy annotation find the element of web page
> loginHRM is the user defined method in which the actual logic is written to login to the application. 
   This is separated out from the cucumber test script. 
package com.sadakar.pageobjects;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.FindBy;

public class HRMLoginPageFactory {

final WebDriver driver;

// Constructor, as every page needs a Webdriver to find elements
public HRMLoginPageFactory(WebDriver driver) {
this.driver = driver;
}

// Locators for User Name, Password and for Login button

// UserName
@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id=\"txtUsername\"]")
public WebElement userNameLocator;

// Password
@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id=\"txtPassword\"]")
public WebElement passwordLocator;

// Login button
@FindBy(id = "btnLogin")
public WebElement loginButtonLocator;

// Method that performs Login action using the web elements
public void loginHRM(String uName, String pwd) {
userNameLocator.sendKeys(uName);
passwordLocator.sendKeys(pwd);
loginButtonLocator.click();
}


}

DirectoryPageFactory.java
> Code walkthrough is same as above factory class. 
package com.sadakar.pageobjects;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.FindBy;

public class DirectoryPageFactory {

final WebDriver driver;

// Constructor, as every page needs a Webdriver to find elements
public DirectoryPageFactory(WebDriver driver) {
this.driver = driver;
}
// Locators for directory tab,search button

// Directory tab locator
@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id=\"menu_directory_viewDirectory\"]")
public WebElement viewDirectoryLinkLocator;

// Search button locator
@FindBy(xpath = "//*[@id=\"searchBtn\"]")
public WebElement searchButtonLocator;

// Method that performs click on Directory tab
public void viewDirectoryTabNavigation() {
viewDirectoryLinkLocator
.click();
}

// Method that checks the search button presence
public boolean verifySearchButtonPresense() {
return searchButtonLocator.isDisplayed();
}
}

HRMLogin.java
> Cucumber step definition for login page. 
> In the feature file, the username and password is taken as data driven test. 
> Define page factory class object hrmLoginPF and initiate the elements using initElements method
package com.sadakar.stepdefinitions;

import java.time.Duration;
import java.util.List;

import org.openqa.selenium.support.PageFactory;
import com.sadakar.common.BasePage;
import com.sadakar.pageobjects.HRMLoginPageFactory;
import io.cucumber.java.en.Given;

public class HRMLogin extends BasePage {

HRMLoginPageFactory hrmLoginPF = PageFactory.initElements(driver, HRMLoginPageFactory.class);

@Given("User login to HRM application with UserName and Password")
public void loginToHRMApp(io.cucumber.datatable.DataTable dataTable) {

List
<List<String>> cells = dataTable.cells();
hrmLoginPF
.loginHRM(cells.get(0).get(0), cells.get(0).get(1));
driver
.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofSeconds(5));
}
}

Directory.java
> Code explanation is similar  as above class 
package com.sadakar.stepdefinitions;

import java.time.Duration;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.PageFactory;
import org.testng.Assert;
import com.sadakar.common.BasePage;
import com.sadakar.pageobjects.DirectoryPageFactory;
import io.cucumber.java.en.Then;

public class Directory extends BasePage{

DirectoryPageFactory directoryPF = PageFactory.initElements(driver, DirectoryPageFactory.class);

@Then("User is on Directory page")
public void directoryPage() {

// Navigating to Directory Page/tab
directoryPF.viewDirectoryTabNavigation();
driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofSeconds(5));
}

@Then("Is Search button displayed")
public void isSearchButtonDisplayed() {

// Verifying Search button is displayed or not
boolean isSearhButtonDisplayedTrue = directoryPF.verifySearchButtonPresense();
Assert.assertTrue(isSearhButtonDisplayedTrue);
}
}

Cheers!, I hope this helped you implement Page Object Model using Page Factory design pattern in cucumber with selenium and testng.
This article also has extent-reports included that is not discussed in steps.

July 29, 2022

July 18, 2022

POM - Page Object Model 

  • It is a design pattern / frame work in selenium. 
  • Using this pattern, we can create object repository for web elements in the UI.
  • We create a POM class file(Example: HRMLoginPOM.java) for each web page such that it consists of all web elements present in the page. 
  • Testing scripts(Example: HRMLogin.java) uses the the elements from POM class file 

Project Structure: 



Source Code :  Download from GitHub or Click this link

Or Watch this No Voice Video Tutotial for the same example 



Steps: 

  • Download and install cucumber plug-in in Eclipse from Market Place

  • Download and install TestNG plug-in in Eclipse from Market Place

  • Create a new Maven project (say : CucucumberTestNGSeleniumMavenPageObjectModel)

  • Add the following dependencies in  pom.xml
    • cucumber-java 7.1.0
    • cucumber-testng 7.1.0
    • selenium-java 4.3.0
    • testng 7.1.0
  • Add the following plug-ins in pom.xml 
    •  maven-surefire-plugin 3.0.0-M7
    •  maven-compiler-plugin 3.10.1
  • Create feature files in 
    • folder: src/test/resources
    • HRMLogin.feature
    • Directory.feature
  • Write code for cucumber runner
    • folder : src/test/java
    • package : com.sadakar.testng.runner
    • class : RunCucumberTest.java

  • Write code for driver, hooks 
    • folder : src/test/java
    • package: com.sadakar.common
    • BasePage.java for driver 
    • Hooks.java for Before and After cucumber hooks

  • Write code for page objects 
In this phase, implement page objects in separate classes for each of the UI page and refer them wherever required in steps definitions. In a long term, if there are any changes in locators, we can just refer to the particular POM class and update at once. 
Using this approach we can also reduce the code redundancy.  
    • folder : src/test/java
    • package: com.sadakar.pageobjects
    • HRMLoginPOM.java for HRMLogin page web elements, 
      • for instance locating username, password and login button 
    • DirectoryPOM.java for Directory page web element, 
      • for instance view directory tab link, search button 
  • Write code for step definitions or say glue code 
    • HRMLogin.java 
    • Directory.java

  • Run the scenarios from mvn command line 
    • Navigate to the project folder 
    • Run the below command for two scenarios. 

      mvn test -Dcucumber.filter.tags="@LoginValidCredentials or @DirectoryTabIsSearchButtonDisplayed"

      Tap on the image for best view: 

  • Run the scenarios from TestNG in eclipse and report analysis
    • Right click on the project and then Run as TestNG
    • Report will be generated at 
      • test-output> emailable-report.html
    • Tap on the image for best view: 

  • Run the project using testng.xml 
    • Right click on the project > Run as testng.xml
    • Report is same as above
    • Make sure testng.xml is added in pom.xml file as configuration

  • Analysis of cucumber report
    • Cucumber report is available at
      • target > cucumber-reports > cucumberreport.html
    • Tap on the image for better view. 


Now, based on above steps, find the code below for features, POM classes, step definition classes, runner classes, Driver and Hooks classes. 

pom.xml
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 https://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
<modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
<groupId>CucucumberTestNGSeleniumMavenPageObjectModel</groupId>
<artifactId>CucucumberTestNGSeleniumMavenPageObjectModel</artifactId>
<version>0.0.1-SNAPSHOT</version>
<properties>
<project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
</properties>
<dependencies>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/io.cucumber/cucumber-java -->
<dependency>
<groupId>io.cucumber</groupId>
<artifactId>cucumber-java</artifactId>
<version>7.1.0</version>

</dependency>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/io.cucumber/cucumber-java -->
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/io.cucumber/cucumber-testng -->
<dependency>
<groupId>io.cucumber</groupId>
<artifactId>cucumber-testng</artifactId>
<version>7.1.0</version>
</dependency>

<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.seleniumhq.selenium/selenium-java -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.seleniumhq.selenium</groupId>
<artifactId>selenium-java</artifactId>
<version>4.3.0</version>
</dependency>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.testng/testng -->
<dependency>
<groupId>org.testng</groupId>
<artifactId>testng</artifactId>
<version>7.1.0</version>
</dependency>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/org.apache.maven.plugins/maven-compiler-plugin -->

<dependency>
<groupId>tech.grasshopper</groupId>
<artifactId>extentreports-cucumber7-adapter</artifactId>
<version>1.7.0</version>
</dependency>
<!-- https://mvnrepository.com/artifact/com.aventstack/extentreports -->
<dependency>
<groupId>com.aventstack</groupId>
<artifactId>extentreports</artifactId>
<version>5.0.8</version>
</dependency>
</dependencies>
<build>
<pluginManagement>
<plugins>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
<artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
<version>3.0.0-M7</version>
<configuration>
<suiteXmlFiles>
<suiteXmlFile>testng.xml</suiteXmlFile>
</suiteXmlFiles>
<systemPropertyVariables>
<extent.reporter.spark.start>true</extent.reporter.spark.start>
<extent.reporter.spark.out>test-output/SparkReport/Spark.html</extent.reporter.spark.out>
</systemPropertyVariables>
</configuration>
</plugin>
<plugin>
<groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId>
<artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
<version>3.10.1</version>
<configuration>
<source>1.8</source>
<target>1.8</target>
<encoding>UTF-8</encoding>
</configuration>
</plugin>
</plugins>
</pluginManagement>
</build>
</project>


HRMLogin.feature

@HRMLogin
Feature: Login to HRM Application
I want to use this template for HRM Login page

@LoginValidCredentials
Scenario: LoginValidCredentials
Given User login to HRM application with UserName and Password
| Admin | admin123 |

Directory.feature
@Directory
Feature: Dashboard page
I want to use this template for my Directory Page

Background:
Given User login to HRM application with UserName and Password
| Admin | admin123 |

@DirectoryTabIsSearchButtonDisplayed
Scenario: DirectoryTabIsSearchButtonDisplayed
Then User is on Directory page
Then Is Search button displayed

RunCucumberTest.java
package com.sadakar.testng.runner;

import io.cucumber.testng.AbstractTestNGCucumberTests;
import io.cucumber.testng.CucumberOptions;

@CucumberOptions(

tags = "@LoginValidCredentials or @DirectoryTabIsSearchButtonDisplayed",

features = "classpath:features", glue = { "com.sadakar.common", "com.sadakar.stepdefinitions",
"com.sadakar.testng.runner" },

plugin = { "pretty", "json:target/cucumber-reports/cucumber.json",
"html:target/cucumber-reports/cucumberreport.html",
"com.aventstack.extentreports.cucumber.adapter.ExtentCucumberAdapter:"},

monochrome = true)
public class RunCucumberTest extends AbstractTestNGCucumberTests {

}

BasePage.java
package com.sadakar.common;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
public class BasePage {

public static WebDriver driver;

}

Hooks.java
package com.sadakar.common;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import io.cucumber.java.After;
import io.cucumber.java.Before;

public class Hooks extends BasePage {

@Before //Cucumber Before Hook
public static void setupDriver() throws InterruptedException {

System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", "D:\\chromedriver.exe");
driver = new ChromeDriver();
driver.manage().window().maximize();
driver.get("https://opensource-demo.orangehrmlive.com/index.php/auth/login");
}

@After // Cucumber After hook
public static void quitDriver() throws Exception {
driver.quit();
}

}

HRMLoginPOM.java
package com.sadakar.pageobjects;

import org.openqa.selenium.By;

public class HRMLoginPOM {

// Locators for username, password, loginButton
public By userNameLocator = By.xpath("//*[@id=\"txtUsername\"]");
public By passwordLocator = By.xpath("//*[@id=\"txtPassword\"]");
public By loginButtonLocator = By.id("btnLogin");

}

DirecotryPOM.java
package com.sadakar.pageobjects;

import org.openqa.selenium.By;

public class DirectoryPOM {

// locators for view Directory Page/Tab, Search button
public By viewDirectoryLinkLocator = By.xpath("//*[@id=\"menu_directory_viewDirectory\"]");
public By searchButtonLocator = By.xpath("//*[@id=\"searchBtn\"]");

}

HRMLogIn.java
package com.sadakar.stepdefinitions;

import java.time.Duration;
import java.util.List;
import com.sadakar.common.BasePage;
import com.sadakar.pageobjects.HRMLoginPOM;

import io.cucumber.java.en.Given;

public class HRMLogin extends BasePage {

HRMLoginPOM hrm = new HRMLoginPOM();

@Given("User login to HRM application with UserName and Password")
public void loginToHRMApp(io.cucumber.datatable.DataTable dataTable) {

List<List<String>> cells = dataTable.cells();

driver.findElement(hrm.userNameLocator).sendKeys(cells.get(0).get(0));
driver.findElement(hrm.passwordLocator).sendKeys(cells.get(0).get(1));
driver.findElement(hrm.loginButtonLocator).submit();
driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofSeconds(5));
}
}

Directory.java
package com.sadakar.stepdefinitions;

import java.time.Duration;

import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.testng.Assert;

import com.sadakar.common.BasePage;
import com.sadakar.pageobjects.DirectoryPOM;

import io.cucumber.java.en.Then;
public class Directory extends BasePage{

DirectoryPOM dir = new DirectoryPOM();

@Then("User is on Directory page")
public void directoryPage() {

// Navigating to Directory Page/tab
driver.findElement(dir.viewDirectoryLinkLocator).click();
driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(Duration.ofSeconds(5));
}

@Then("Is Search button displayed")
public void isSearchButtonDisplayed() {

// Verifying Search button is displayed or not
WebElement searchButtonEle = driver.findElement(dir.searchButtonLocator);
Assert.assertTrue(searchButtonEle.isDisplayed());
}
}

Cheers!, I hope this helped you implement Page Object Model using cucumber, selenium and testng. 
This article also has extent-reports included that is not discussed in steps. 

July 18, 2022

July 15, 2022

Hi, 

Below piece of code verifies if the xml response has Text1 in it then performs Text1 tests else performs Text2 and Text3 tests respectively. 

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if( pm.response.text().has("Text1")){

console.log("Received : body contains Text1");

pm.test("Body contains Text1",() => {
pm.expect(pm.response.text()).to.include("Text1");
});

}else{

console.log(" Not Received : Text1 so verifying for Text2 and Text3");

pm.test("Body contains Text2",() => {
pm.expect(pm.response.text()).to.include("Text2");
});

pm.test("Body contains Text2",() => {
pm.expect(pm.response.text()).to.include("Text2");
});

}


July 15, 2022

Below command on node.js command line generates html report with date and time.  

newman run TestCollection.postman_collection.json  -e TestEnvironment.postman_environment.json -r htmlextra --reporter-htmlextra-export D:\posman\newman\TestCollectionReport_%date:~-4,4%%date:~-10,2%%date:~-7,2%_%time:~0,2%%time:~3,2%.html

Example:
D:/postman/newman/TestCollectionReport_20221507_1720.html


Tap on the below image for best view



July 15, 2022

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