### Calculated Field Reference

This section lists all functions that can be used to create calculated fields and measures in Ad Hoc views. For details of the supported syntax, see Calculated Field Syntax.

These functions are available for calculated fields and measures in Ad Hoc views only. See Operators and Functions for supported operators and functions in Domains. |

**Absolute**(NumericExpression)

Returns the absolute value of a number or field, that is, the non-negative value of the number.

**Example:**

Absolute("Transaction Amount") — Shows the magnitude of each transaction, regardless of whether the transaction is positive or negative.

"Commission Rate" * Absolute("Transaction Amount") — Computes a positive commission on all transactions, regardless of whether the transaction is positive or negative.

**Average** (NumericExpression[,'Level])

Returns the average value of a measure or numeric field, based on an optional level. Null values are not included. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Example:**

Average("Salary", 'RowGroup')

**Case** (Expression, ValueExpression1, ReturnExpression1, ValueExpression2, ReturnExpression2[,..., ValueExpressionN, ReturnExpressionN][,DefaultReturnExpression])

Takes 2N+1 or 2N+2 arguments: an expression followed by one or more value expression/return expression pairs, with an optional final return expression. Compares the expression in the first argument to each value expression in order of appearance. Returns the value of the expression immediately following the first value expression that matches. If no expression matches, returns the final DefaultReturnExpression if present, null otherwise.

The types of all the return expressions must be compatible. For example, you can't mix numeric and text return value types.

**Example:**

Case("Shipped by", 1, 'FedEx', 2, 'UPS', 3, 'USPS', 'Unknown')

**CaseRange** (NumericExpressionInput, NumericExpression1, ReturnExpression1, NumericExpression2, ReturnExpression2[,..., NumericExpressionN, ReturnExpressionN][,DefaultReturnExpression])

Takes 2N+1 or 2N+2 arguments: an expression followed by one or more numeric expression/return expression pairs, with an optional final return expression. Finds the first numeric expression that is greater than the input expression and returns the value of the corresponding return expression. If no expression is greater, returns the final DefaultReturnExpression if present, null otherwise.

The types of all the return expressions must be compatible. For example, you can't mix numeric and text return value types.

**Example:**

Case("Temperature", 60, 'too cold', 80, 'just right', 'too hot')

**CaseWhen** (BooleanExpression1, ReturnExpression1, BooleanExpression2, ReturnExpression2[,..., BooleanExpressionN, ReturnExpressionN][, DefaultReturnExpression])

Takes 2N or 2N+1 arguments: one or more pairs of Boolean expressions followed by return expressions, with an optional final return expression. Returns the expression immediately following the first true Boolean expression. If no expression is true, returns the final DefaultReturnExpression if present, null otherwise. This is the most flexible construct.

The types of all the return expressions must be compatible. For example, you can't mix numeric and text return value types.

**Example:**

CaseWhen("Shipped by" == 1, 'FedEx', "Shipped by" == 2, 'UPS', "Shipped by"== 3, 'USPS', 'Unknown')

Case("Temperature" <= 60, 'too cold', "Temperature" > 80, 'too hot', 'just right')

**Concatenate**(TextExpression1[ ,TextExpression2,...,TextExpressionN])

Combines multiple text strings and/or fields into a single text field. Text strings are enclosed in single quotes; labels for fields or measures in Ad Hoc are enclosed in straight quotes.

**Examples:**

Concatenate("Last Name", ' , ', "First Name")

Concatenate("Product Category", ' -- ', "Product Name")

**Contains**(TextExpression1 ,TextExpression2])

Boolean that returns true if the first string contains the second, false otherwise.

**Examples:**

Contains("Product Name", 'Soda')

**CountAll**(Expression[,'Level')]

Returns the count of non-null items in a field or measure; note that CountAll always returns a non-negative integer. Level can be one of the following: Current (default), ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Example:**

CountAll("Transaction Amount", 'RowGroup') — Counts the total number of non-null transactions in the specified group.

**CountDistinct**(Expression[,'Level])

Returns the distinct count of non-null items in the input. Always returns a non-negative integer. Level can be one of the following: Current (default), ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Example:**

CountDistinct("Customer Name", 'Total')— Counts the number of distinct customers.

**DayName** (DateExpression)

Given a date field, returns a text field with the name of the day of the week.

**Example:**

DayName("Open Date")— Displays the day of the week on which a store was opened.

Mode(DayName("Open Date"), 'Total')— The day of the week on which the most stores were opened.

**DayNumber** (DateExpression)

Numeric field that returns the day of the month from a date field.

DayNumber("Open Date")— Displays the day of the month on which a store was opened.

**ElapsedDays** (DateExpression1, DateExpression2)

Calculates the number of days elapsed between two date fields that contain time values.

**Example:**

ElapsedDays ("Date shipped","Date required")

**ElapsedHours** (DateTimeExpression1, DateTimeExpression2)

Calculates the number of hours elapsed between two date fields that contain time values.

**Example:**

ElapsedHours ("Date shipped","Date required")

This replaces the two-date custom field operation Date Difference > Hours available in Ad Hoc views created in JasperReports Server 5.5 or earlier. |

**ElapsedMinutes** (DateTimeExpression1,DateTimeExpression2)

Calculates the number of minutes elapsed between two date fields that contain time values.

**Example:**

ElapsedMinutes ("Date shipped","Date required")

This replaces the two-date custom field operation Date Difference > Minutes available in Ad Hoc views created in JasperReports Server 5.5 or earlier. |

**ElapsedMonths** (DateTimeExpression1,DateTimeExpression2)

Calculates the number of months elapsed between two date fields that contain time values.

**Example:**

ElapsedMonths ("Date shipped","Date required")

**ElapsedQuarters** (DateExpression1, DateExpression2)

Calculates the number of quarters elapsed between two date fields.

**Example:**

ElapsedQuarters ("Date shipped","Date required")

**ElapsedSeconds** (DateTimeExpression1,DateTimeExpression2)

Calculates the number of seconds elapsed between two date fields that contain time values.

**Example:**

ElapsedSeconds ("Date shipped","Date required")

This replaces the two-date custom field operation Date Difference > Seconds available in Ad Hoc views created in JasperReports Server 5.5 or earlier. |

**ElapsedSemis** (DateExpression1,DateExpression2)

Calculates the number of semi-years elapsed between two date fields.

**Example:**

ElapsedSemis ("Date shipped","Date required")

**ElapsedWeeks** (DateExpression1,DateExpression2)

Calculates the number of weeks elapsed between two date fields that contain time values.

**Example:**

ElapsedWeeks ("Date shipped","Date required")

This replaces the two-date custom field operation Date Difference > Weeks available in Ad Hoc views created in JasperReports Server 5.5 or earlier. |

**ElapsedYears** (DateExpression1,DateExpression2)

Calculates the number of years between two date fields.

**Example:**

ElapsedYears ("Date shipped","Date required")

This replaces the two-date custom field operation Date Difference > Years available in Ad Hoc views created in JasperReports Server 5.5 or earlier. |

#### EndsWith(TextExpression1, TextExpression2]

Boolean that returns true if the first text input ends with the string specified in the second input; false otherwise.

**Examples:**

EndsWith("Product Name", 's')

**IF** (BooleanExpression, ExpressionWhenTrue[, ExpressionWhenFalse])

Given a Boolean field or calculation as the first argument, returns the second argument if true; optionally returns the third argument if false. Returns null if the first argument is null.

ExpressionWhenFalse must be of the same type as ExpressionWhenTrue. For example, if ExpressionWhenTrueis a date, ExpressionWhenFalse must be a date in the same format. If ExpressionWhenFalse is not set, then a false result returns a null value.

You can create a BooleanExpression using the comparison operators(“==”, “!=”, “>”, “>=”, “<”, “<=”); any functions that return Boolean values (StartsWith, EndsWith, IsNull, Contains) and logical operators (and, or, not). |

**Example:**

IF(Contains("Product Name", 'Soda'), 'Yes', 'No')— Uses the Contains function to see whether the product name contains the string "Soda"; if it does, sets the field value to Yes.

**IsNull**(Expression)

Boolean that returns true if the field value is null; false otherwise.

**Examples:**

IsNull("First Name")

**Length**(TextExpression)

Given a text string, returns its length. Null values return null.

**Examples:**

Length("First Name")

**Max** (NumericExpression|DateExpression[,'Level])

Returns the maximum value reached by the specified field or calculation. Level can be one of the following: Current (default), ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Example:**

Max("Salary")

**Median** (NumericExpression|DateExpression[,'Level])

For an odd number of values, returns the middle value after all values are listed in order. For an even number of values, returns the average of the middle two values. For example, if a field has only five instances, with values {1,1,3,10,20}, the median is 3. Level can be one of the following: Current (default), ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Example:**

Median("Salary")

**Mid** (TextExpression,Integer1,Integer2)

Given a text string, returns the substring starting at Integer1 with length Integer2.

**Example:**

Mid("Phone", 1, 3) — Given an American phone number starting with a 3-digit area code, extracts the area code.

**Min ** (NumericExpression|DateExpression[,'Level])

Returns the minimum value reached by the specified field or calculation based on an optional level. Level can be one of the following: Current (default), ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Example:**

Min("Salary")

**Mode** (Expression[,'Level])

Returns the most frequent value reached by the specified input, based on an optional level. For example, if a field has only five instances with values {1,2,2,4,5}, the mode is 2. Level can be one of the following: Current (default), ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Example:**

Mode (DayName ("Order Date",RowGroup)) — For each row group, returns the day of the week on which the most orders were placed.

**MonthName** (DateExpression)

Returns a text field with the name of the month.

**Example:**

MonthName ("Order Date" )

**MonthNumber** (DateExpression)

Returns the number of the month, with January = 1 and December = 12. Null values return null.

**Example:**

MonthNumber ("Order Date")

**PercentOf** (NumericExpression[,'Level])

Returns the value as a percent of total for the specified level. Null values are ignored. Note that possible values for Level are ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total (default). See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

PercentOf (NumericExpression, Total) replaces the custom field calculation Percent of Total Group available in Ad Hoc views created in JasperReports Server 5.5 or earlier. |

Calculated fields using the PercentOf function should not be used as filters; if PercentOf is used as a filter, then the total percent may not be 100. |

**Example:**

PercentOf("")

**Range** (NumericExpression[,'Level])

The difference between the largest and smallest values of the given input.

**Example:**

Range("Salary",'ColumnGroup')

**Rank** (NumericExpression)

Returns the position of each value relative to the other values after all the values are listed in order. For example, the top ten in sales are the top ten in rank. Null values are ignored.

**Example:**

Rank("Store Sales")

**Round** (NumericExpression[,Integer])

Rounds a number to a specified number of digits; default is zero (0) digits. Decimal values greater than 0.5 are rounded to the next largest whole number, and values less than 0.5 are rounded down.

**Example:**

Round("Sales")

#### StartsWith(TextExpression1, TextExpression2]

Boolean that returns true if the first text input starts with the string specified in the second input; false otherwise.

**Examples:**

StartsWith("Product Name", 'Q')

**StdevP** (NumericExpression[,'Level])

Standard deviation based on the entire population, taken over the values at the specified (optional) level. Null values are excluded. Level can be one of the following: Current (default), ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Examples:**

StdevP("Sales",'RowTotal')

**StdevS** (NumericExpression[,'Level])

Standard deviation based on a sample, taken over the values at the specified level. Null values are excluded. Level can be one of the following: Current (default), ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Example:**

StdevS("Sales",'RowTotal')

**Sum** (NumericExpression[,'Level])

The sum of all values in the range. Null values are excluded. Level can be one of the following: Current (default), ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Examples:**

Sum("Sales",'RowGroup')

**Today** (Integer)

Calculates the date that is the specified number of days from the current system date.

**Examples:**

Today (0) — The current system date.

Today(1) — The day after the current system date.

Today(-1) — The day before the current system date.

**WeightedAverage** (NumericExpression1,NumericExpression2,'Level')

Returns the weighted average for the first input weighted with respect to the second input, calculated at an optional level. Null values are excluded. Level can be one of the following: Current (default), ColumnGroup, ColumnTotal, RowGroup, RowTotal, Total. See Levels in Aggregate Functions for more information.

**Examples:**

WeightedAverage ("Price","Units", 'Current') — The extended price based on the number of units.

WeightedAverage ("Price","Units", 'RowGroup') — The sum of the extended price for all units in the row group.

**Year** (DateExpression)

Given a date field, returns the year.

**Examples:**

Year("Order Date" )

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